The data displayed below were collected during a joint project between the Geophysical Engineering Department and the Montana Bureau of Mines and Geology. The samples represent sandstones collected and analyzed for their potential use as proppant material. Use the following options to search the data. Documentation of methods and results related to this data set is provided by Getty and others (2021) available at:

Navigation Show All Samples | Mapper | Measured Sections Download Options
Link Reference Notes
View Gardner, L.S.,1959, Revision of the Big Snowy Group in Central Montana: American Association of Petroleum Geologists, v. 43, no. 2, p. 329-349
View Hanson, A.M.,1952, Cambrian Stratigraphy in southwestern Montana: Montana Bureau of Mines and Geology, Memoir no. 33, p. 25-41. Typically, the lower part of the Flathead Formation has more potential than higher in the section where there is usually sandstone interbedded with shale and more clay present. Also farther north and west showed more promise than the south and eastern sections discussed in this paper.
View Weed, W.H.,1900,Geology of the Little Belt Mountains, Montana: U.S. Geological Survey Annual Report no. 20, 1899-99, pt. 3, p. 284-318
View Deiss, C., 1936, Revision of type Cambrian Formations and sections of Montana and Yellowstone National Park: Geological Society of America Bulletin v. 47, p. 1257-1342.
View Deiss, C.F., 1939, Cambrian stratigraphy and trilobites of northwestern Montana: Geological Society of America Special Paper no. 18, 135 p.
View Dutro, T.J., 1979, Carboniferous of the northern Rocky Mountains, Big Snowy Mountains Region, Montana: AGI Selected Guidebook Series no. 3, p. 28.
View Harris, W.L.,1972, Upper Mississippian and Pennsylvanian sediments of Central Montana: University of Montana, Ph.D. dissertation, p. 1-58, 75-92,110-112,173-191,241-248. Sandstones of the upper Kibbey are fine to very fine grained (0.2- 0.05 mm). Coarse grained sandstones are present on the northern side of the Little Belt Mountains and to the east. Larger grains are typically rounded to well rounded and smaller grains are angular. Mostly moderately to well sorted. Friable because of incomplete calcareous cementation. The uppermost unit of the Quadrant is well indurated because of almost complete siliceous cementation.
View Gill, J.R., and Burkholder, R.E., 1979, Measured sections of the Montana Group and equivalent rocks from Montana and Wyoming: U.S. Geological Survey Open File Report 79-1143, 203 p.
View Lopez, D.A., and VanDelinder, S.W. 2007, Measured sections of the Pennsylvanian Tensleep Sandstone, Pryor and Bighorn Mountains, Montana: Montana Bureau of Mines and Geology, Open File Report 553, 55 p. The lower 29 ft of the formation not included in the database has many thin layers, all composed of limy sandstone with calcareous matrix, They all have fine to very fine grain size and much cross bedding with parallel laminated section typical towards the bottom of this section. There is also a 1 ft section of siliceous sandstone followed by siltstone at the base of the "top lower Tensleep". The Amsden Formation underlies all of the above Tensleep formations from this reference.
View Robinson, G. D., 1963, Geology of the Three Forks Quadrangle Montana: Geological Survey Professional Paper 370, 143 p.
View Richards, P.W., 1957, Geology of the area east and southeast of Livingston, Park County, Montana: U.S. Geological Survey Bulletin 1021-L, p. 385-436. There is information in this reference about the Virgelle Formation (p. 417-419) but it does not indicate any specific locations for sandstone, nor does it describe its characteristics in any detail other than color and weathering.
View Vine, J.D., 1956, Geology of the Stanford-Hobson area, central Montana: U.S. Geological Survey Bulletin 1027-J, p. 405-467. Page 416 contains well log information which describes the Kibbey Formation as sandstones that are typically very fine grained to silty but there is one 15 ft section containing white, fine to medium grained sandstone.
View Richards, P.W, 1955, Geology of the Bighorn Canyon - Hardin area, Montana and Wyoming: U.S. Geological Survey Bulletin 1026, 93 p.
View Easton, W.H., 1962, Carboniferous formations and faunas of central Montana: U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 348, 126 p. Reference has detailed descriptions at the beginning of each section on how to get to the specific sites.
View Mertie, J.B., 1951, Geology of the Canyon Ferry quadrangle, Montana: U.S. Geological Survey Bulletin 972, 95 p. Reference does not contain any measured sections but describes the Flathead and the Quadrant Formations. Flathead (p. 21): brittle unit displaced by numerous small cross faults producing step-like outcrops. NW of Hellgate Gulch the Flathead is tightly folded and bent with little evidence of rupturing. It contains mostly medium to coarse quartzite grains and mostly pale gray with occasional purple and red banding. Quadrant Formation (p.28): Exposed along the front of the Big Belt Mountains in the vicinity of White Gulch and at places in the southeastern part of Spokane Hills. This formation consists of quartzite interbedded with limestone, sandstone, and shale. The quartzite is hard, tough, brittle and vitreous.The sandstone is thin-bedded and brown, red, or gray; most is soft and shaly, but some is quartzitic and other is calcareous.
View Maughan, E.K., Roberts, A.E., 1967, Big Snowy and Amsden Groups and the Mississippian-Pennsylvanian boundary in Montana: U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 554-B, 27 p. Reference describes the increasingly sandy trend towards the west for the Devil's Pocket Formation (p. B16). Also many of the sections have specific direction to outcrop sites and also span across more than one location.The first, or most specific, of the locations provided for each measured section is provided.
View McKelvey, V.E., 1959, The Phosphoria, Park City, and Shedhorn Formations in the Western Phosphate field: U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 313-A, 45 p.
View Tysdal, R.G., 1970, Geology of the north end of the Ruby Range, southwestern Montana: University of Montana, Ph.D. dissertation, p. 133-180.
View Mann, J.A., 1954, Geology of part of the Gravelly Range, Montana: Yellowstone-Bighorn Research Project Contribution no. 190, p. 75-92.
View Knappen, R.S., and Moulton, G.F., 1930, Geology and mineral resources of parts of Carbon, Big Horn, Yellowstone, and Stillwater Counties, Montana: U.S. Geological Survey Bulletin 822-A, 70 p. On page 37 there is information about the Eagle Sandstone, however it is not very descriptive. Much of the sandstone is interbedded with shale, clay, or coal. The Greybull Member is mentioned on page 26 but has no sandstone in its measured section. The Greybull is defined as a resistant sandstone with limonite cement with grain size less than 0.4mm. It has a high clay content.
View Glasheen, R.M., 1969, Geology of the Whetstone Ridge area, Meagher County, Montana: Oregon State University, M.S. thesis, 137 p. Reference has information on the Judith River and Lennep formations. None of the sandstone units appear promising because of either high lithic or feldspar content.
View Witkind, I.J., 1969, Geology of the Tepee Creek quadrangle Montana-Wyoming: U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 609, 101 p.
View Mudge, M.R., 1972, Pre-Quaternary rocks in the Run River Canyon area, northwestern Montana: U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 663-A, 142 p. Measured sections of the Blackleaf Formation, Flood Member are on p. 26. The Flood contains many layers of sandstone and it is all noncalcareous, mostly composed of quartz, feldspar, and chert. Each section is very fine grained. Also most of it is interbedded with shale and contains granules of claystone.
View Klepper, M.R., Ruppel, E.T., Freeman, V.L., Weeks, R.A., 1971, Geology and mineral deposits, east flank of the Elkhorn Mountains, Broadwater County, Montana: U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 665, 66 p.
View Cobban, W.E., Erdmann, C.E., Lemke, R.W., Maughan, E.K., 1976, Type sections and stratigraphy of the members of the Blackleaf and Marias River Formations (Cretaceous) of the Sweetgrass Arch, Montana: U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 974, 66 p.
View McLane, M.J., 1971, Phanerozoic detrital rocks at the north end of the Tobacco Root Mountains, southwestern Montana: a vertical profile: Indiana University, Ph.D. dissertation, 253 p. Reference includes detailed information about each unit except for thickness which was estimated for each unit from drawn stratigraphic sections.
View Alexander, R.G., Jr.,1955, Geology of the Whitehall area, Montana: Yellowstone-Bighorn Research Project Contribution no. 95, 110 p.
View Mahorney, J.R., 1956, Geology of the Garrity Hill area, Deer Lodge County, Montana: Indiana University, M.A. thesis, 40 p. The Quadrant section was not measured because of an excessive amount of Quadrant talus and cover.
View Nave, F.R., 1952, Geology of a portion of the Bridger Range, Montana:State University of Iowa, M.S. thesis, 104 p.
View McMannis, W.J., 1952, Geology of the Bridger Range area, Montana: Princeton University, Ph.D. dissertation, 47 p.
View Wilson, M.D., 1970, Cretaceous stratigraphy of the southern Madison and Gallatin Ranges, southwestern Montana: University of Idaho, Ph.D. dissertation, 55 p.
View Childers, M.O., 1960, Structure and stratigraphy of the southwest Marias Pass area, Flathead County, Montana: Princeton University, Ph.D. dissertation, 181 p.
View Bierwagen, E.E., 1964, Geology of the Black Mountain area Lewis and Clark, and Powell Counties, Montana: Princeton University, Ph.D. dissertation, 46 p.
View Moberly, R.M., 1956, Mesozoic Morrison, Cloverly, and Crooked Creek Formations, Bighorn Basin, Wyoming and Montana: Princeton University, Ph.D. dissertation, 47 p. There are some promising quartz arenites in the Cloverly Formation in Wyoming. The are medium- to fine-grained, friable, calcareous and sparkly. (Sec. 19, T. 57 N., R. 94 W.)
View Loen, J.S., 1990, Lode and placer gold deposits in the Ophir district, Powell, and Lewis Clark Counties, Montana: Colorado State University, Ph.D. dissertation, 264 p.
View McGill, G.E., 1958, Geology of the northwest flank of the Flint Creek Range, western Montana: Princeton University, Ph.D. dissertation, 193 p. The Flathead, Shedhorn, and Quadrant are described as relatively hard, pure quartzites. The Flathead is described as a first or second quality glass sand. It is not included in the database because tightly cemented, but is located in NE 1/4, SW1/4, Sec. 27, T. 09 N., R. 13 W. (p. 161).
View Theodosis, S.D., 1956, The geology of the Melrose area, Beaverhead and Silver Bow Counties, Montana: Indiana University, Ph.D. dissertation, 118 p. The uppermost Quadrant at one location is described as friable (p. 42). NW1/4, Sec. 30, T. 01 S., R. 09 W., and NW1/4 Sec. 13, T. 01 S., R. 09 W.,sec.13, NW. Elsewhere the Quadrant is tightly cemented in the Melrose area.
View Goers, J.W., 1964, Geology and groundwater resources of the Stockett-Smith River area, Montana: Master of Science, University of Montana, M.S. thesis, 123 p. Sandstones of the Kibbey Formation in this area are friable and poorly indurated (p. 30).
View Key, C.F., 1987, Stratigraphy and depositional history of the Amsden and Lower Quadrant Formations, Snowcrest Range, Beaverhead and Madison Counties, Montana: Oregon State University, M.S. thesis, 187 p.
View Christie, H.H., 1961, Geology of the southern part of the Gravelly Range, southwestern Montana: Oregon State College, M.S. thesis, 159 p.
View Rose, R.R., 1967, Stratigraphy and structure of part of the southern Madison Range, Madison and Gallatin Counties Montana: Oregon State University, M.S. thesis, 172 p.
View Austin, W.H., Jr., 1950, Reconnaissance geology of the south flank of Cinnamon Mountain, Gallatin County, Montana: University of Michigan, M.S. thesis, 102 p.
View Hall, W.B., 1961, Geology of part of the Upper Gallatin Valley of southwestern Montana: University of Wyoming, Ph.D. dissertation, 239 p.